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We are a professional mining machinery manufacturer, the main equipment including: jaw crusher, cone crusher and other sandstone equipment;Ball mill, flotation machine, concentrator and other beneficiation equipment; Powder Grinding Plant, rotary dryer, briquette machine, mining, metallurgy and other related equipment.If you are interested in our products or want to visit the nearby production site, you can click the button to consult us.

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sri lanka: expedition to the island of jewels | gems

In February 2014, the authors explored Sri Lanka’s entire mine-to-market gemstone and jewelry industry. The team visited numerous mining, cutting, trading, jewelry manufacturing, and retail centers representing each sector and witnessed a dynamic blend of traditional and increasingly modern practices. Centuries of tradition as a colored gemstone mining, trading, and cutting source now converge with the technologies, skill sets, and strategies of today’s global market

Sri Lanka is one of the meccas of gemology. Few sources, especially among active localities, can match its rich history as a gem producer and trade center. As Sri Lanka takes its place in today’s gem and jewelry industry, the gemologist can observe a combination of traditional methods and modern technologies as well as new business strategies for a highly competitive market. What appear to be primitive practices are often highly efficient and well suited to the task. While most of the mining enterprises are small operations using simple hand tools, these allow for continuous mining, employ a large workforce, and are less damaging to the environment (figure 1). Cutting is another sector where traditional techniques still prevail, providing excellent initial orientation of the rough crystal for maximum face-up color and weight retention. At the same time, highly skilled recutting in Sri Lanka is achieving international market standards of proportions, symmetry, and brightness (figure 2). Fine precision cutting to tight tolerances on modern lapidary equipment is being applied to calibrated goods that meet the strictest requirements, including those of the watch industry

While the small shops rely on jewelry manufacturing techniques such as hand-blown soldering, modern factories use lost-wax and casting as well as die-striking. Gem trading has evolved, partly due to more trade-friendly import and export regulations, making Sri Lankan buyers more competitive globally. The retail industry continues to find a large domestic market for traditional 22K gold jewelry while expanding to meet the diverse tastes of younger Sri Lankans and tourists

sri lanka: expedition to the island of jewels | gems

Sri Lanka is a large island in the Indian Ocean, just off the southern tip of India. It measures 65,610 square kilometers (40,768 square miles), with 1,340 kilometers (832 miles) of coastline. In the southwest, where most of the gemstone mining takes place, the monsoon season lasts from June to October. Sri Lanka is located in the path of major trade routes in the Indian Ocean, an advantage that helped establish it as one of the world’s most important gem sources. In addition to gemstones, Sri Lanka has natural resources of limestone, graphite, mineral sands, phosphates, clay, and hydroelectric power. The country is also known for its tea, spices, rubber, and textiles. Of the total workforce, 42.4% are employed in the service sector, 31.8% in agriculture, and 25.8% in industry, which includes mining and manufacturing (CIA World Fact Book, 2014). The tourist industry is expected to see strong growth, although the existing infrastructure may struggle to accommodate a large influx of visitors to such attractions as the ruins at Sigiriya, a UNESCO World Heritage site (figure 3)

Sri Lanka’s economy has experienced strong growth since 2009, which marked the end of a 26-year civil war that long plagued economic development. The country’s population of nearly 22 million encompasses different ethnicities and religions that are reflected in the styles of jewelry manufactured and sold domestically. The population is 73.8% Sinhalese, 7.2% Sri Lankan Moor, 4.6% Indian Tamil, and 3.9% Sri Lankan Tamil (with 10% unspecified). Buddhists account for 69.1% of the population, Muslims 7.6%, Hindus 7.1%, and Christians 6.2% (CIA World Fact Book, 2014). While Muslims and Hindus represent a distinct minority, they have a rich jewelry tradition, and the authors witnessed the importance of their buying power in the retail industry

Gemstone use in Sri Lanka dates back at least 2,000 years. The gem-laden island was referred to in Sanskrit as Ratna Dweepa, meaning “Island of Jewels” (Hughes, 2014). Early Arab traders called it Serendib, which is the origin of the word “serendipity.” Known until 1972 as Ceylon, it has a rich history as a source of economically important gemstones, particularly sapphire (figure 4) and cat’s-eye chrysoberyl

sri lanka: expedition to the island of jewels | gems

James Emerson Tennent, an administrator of British Ceylon from 1846 to 1850, noted that the Mahavamsa (The Great Chronicle of Ceylon) mentions a gem-encrusted throne owned by a Naga king in 543 BC, when the earliest accounts of the island were written (Hughes, 1997). The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder wrote that ambassadors from Taprobane, as Sri Lanka was known at the time, boasted of its fine gemstones during the reign of Emperor Claudius from 41 to 54 AD (Hughes, 1997). The Greek astronomer Ptolemy referred to the island’s beryl, sapphire, and gold in the second century AD (Hughes, 1997). Marco Polo traveled there in 1293 and noted the abundance of gems, including ruby, sapphire, topaz, amethyst, and garnet (Ariyaratna, 2013). The famous Arab explorer Ibn Battuta, visiting in the 14th century, wrote of the variety of precious stones he saw (Ariyaratna, 2013). Between 500 and 1500 AD, during the rule of ancient and medieval Sinhala kings, the mining, possession, and commerce of precious stones was controlled by the monarch. Arab and Persian merchants purchased many fine gemstones. During the periods of European colonization—Portuguese (1505–1656), Dutch (1656–1796), and British (1796–1948)—gem commerce expanded beyond the royal family, as the Europeans were solely interested in trading and profit (Mahroof, 1997). European traders brought more of these goods to the West and furthered the island’s reputation as a source of gemstones and trade expertise. During the 20th century, Sri Lanka’s standing as a premier gem trade center diminished. This was due to numerous factors: the emergence of other sources, a failure to adapt and master technology such as heat treatment and modern cutting, and government regulations that hindered the rapid growth enjoyed by Thailand and other countries. In the last two decades, Sri Lanka has overcome those setbacks and now has a dynamic, rapidly growing gem and jewelry industry

The goal of this study was to document the entire Sri Lankan colored gemstone industry from mine to market. While many past articles have focused on geology and mining, we decided to cover the entire spectrum, including gem mining, import and export, cutting, treatment, jewelry manufacturing, and retail. We wanted to rely heavily on our own observations for all of the sectors. We sought direct communications with industry leaders and trade members. Through extensive travel and numerous visits to different operations and businesses, we assembled the whole picture. Hundreds of hours of video footage and interviews and more than 7,000 photos documented all aspects of the industry in Sri Lanka. Our first stop was at the offices of Sapphire Capital Group, where we saw Sri Lankan dealers serving as expert consultants for foreign buyers. For an entire day, we watched a buyer from New Zealand purchase parcel after parcel of sapphire and other gemstones from dealers his local contact had arranged (figure 6). As he chose his sapphires, the foreign buyer would consult the Sri Lankans on how the stones would recut. There we also captured the highly skilled recutting of sapphire and cat’s-eye chrysoberyl

Over the next few days, we paid visits to wholesalers, retailers, and cutting facilities in Colombo. At Precision Lapidaries, we caught a glimpse of the modern Sri Lankan gemstone cutting industry, which emphasizes precision and quality. Our first trip outside of Colombo was to the weekend market at Beruwala, which was particularly busy (figure 7). We were able to see the art of street dealing in Sri Lanka, along with trading activity in the offices. We also interviewed traditional cutters and a specialist in the heat treatment of sapphire

sri lanka: expedition to the island of jewels | gems

Our next stop was the famous gemstone market near Ratnapura, where the trading in the streets was even heavier than at Beruwala. We were allowed to visit numerous offices and traditional cutting and treatment facilities. After spending several hours at the market in Ratnapura, we explored pit-mining operations in the area. At Balangoda we saw three mechanized mining operations and interviewed several miners. We were also able to watch a river mining operation. By this point in our trip, we had observed the three main types of gem recovery in Sri Lanka: (1) pit mining, including simple narrow pits with galleries and small open-cast operations, both worked by hand; (2) mechanized mining in open pits, incorporating backhoes or bulldozers for digging and sluices for washing; and (3) traditional river mining. In Elahera, another famous locality on our itinerary, we observed a mechanized operation and traditional pit mining. Back in Colombo, we had three days to explore other cutting facilities, wholesalers and retailers, modern and traditional jewelry manufacturers, and the famous gem and jewelry hub of Sea Street

The classification of Sri Lanka’s gem deposits is summarized in figure 8. Most of the gem deposits are of sedimentary nature, though there are some primary deposits related to metamorphic and magmatic rock. Regional and/or contact metamorphism favored the formation of corundum and spinel by removing silica and water, transforming aluminum- and magnesium-bearing silicates into oxides. Pegmatites are the most important magmatic source of Sri Lankan gems, hosting beryl, tourmaline, corundum, and moonstone, among others. The most famous pegmatite is the moonstone deposit at Meetiyagoda, in southern Sri Lanka (Dissanayake and Chandrajith, 2003). Mendis et al. (1993) noted that many deposits are distributed along structural features such as faults, folds, and shear zones. Although these structures can influence the distribution of gem deposits, it remains unclear whether they are genetically related

Almost all of Sri Lanka’s sources are alluvial, containing rich concentrations of gem-bearing gravels called illam (figure 9). In addition to sapphires, a variety of other gems are recovered from the illam, including spinel, cat’s-eye chrysoberyl, and moonstone. Very few important primary deposits have been found. One was discovered by accident during road construction in 2012 near the town of Kataragama (Dharmaratne et al., 2012; Pardieu et al., 2012). The sapphire find was highly valuable, estimated at US$100 million or higher, so the government auctioned off surrounding plots of land for mining. Although these small plots sold for the highest price ever recorded for gem mining licenses in Sri Lanka, no commercially valuable deposits were subsequently found. But a full geological study of the deposit has yet to be conducted, so the true potential of Kataragama is still unknown (V. Pardieu, pers. comm., 2014). Approximately 10 to 15 primary deposits of sapphire have been discovered over the last 20 years, all by accident (P.G.R. Dharmaratne, pers. comm., 2014)

sri lanka: expedition to the island of jewels | gems

Most alluvial mining is done in areas with a history of gem production. There are many such areas in the central to southern part of the island. Due to the nature of alluvial mining deposits, concentrated gem-bearing gravels may be left behind. The alluvial gravels of Ratnapura and Elahera may contain samples from several types of primary deposits (Groat and Giuliani, 2014). Crystals found at or near the original source rocks can be beautifully shaped, such as those at Kataragama (figure 10). Crystals that have been transported longer distances, like specimens found in Ratnapura, are usually rounded pebbles (Zwaan, 1986)

Prospecting in Sri Lanka is rarely scientific. When evaluating an area, the traditional method is to drive a long steel rod into the ground (figure 11). The prospectors examine the end of the rod for scratches and marks from contact with quartz and corundum, and for gravel stuck to it. Some can even distinguish the sound it makes. This method may also help in determining the depth, composition, size, character, and color of the illam (Ariyaratna, 2013)

With more than 103 natural river basins covering 90% of the country’s landmass (Dissanayake and Chandrajith, 2003), there are numerous places for gemstones to be concentrated in gravels. Deposits of corundum and other gems are known to occur in the southern two-thirds of the island (Hughes, 1997). We visited the mining areas around Ratnapura, Balangoda, and Elahera. Although these are but a small percentage of Sri Lanka’s gem deposits, they gave a representative overview of mining operations throughout the country. All of these are secondary gravel deposits—we could not find any primary deposits being mined

sri lanka: expedition to the island of jewels | gems

While the modern mining industry promotes recovery by the fastest means possible, Sri Lanka embraces almost the opposite philosophy. Mining is done primarily by manual labor. The National Gem and Jewel­lery Authority (NGJA), the regulatory body that issues mining licenses, is very strict in its requirements for mechanized mining. This strategy keeps approximately 60,000 to 70,000 gem miners continuously employed (P.G.R. Dharmaratne, pers. comm., 2014). The predecessor to the NGJA was the State Gem Corporation, which established regional offices and took control of mining licenses and guidelines in 1972. Its regulations for the gem industry supported legal mining operations (Dharmaratne, 2002). Sri Lanka issued 6,565 gem mining licenses in 2013. Mining licenses must be renewed every year, and the number has steadily increased since 2009, when the NGJA granted about 4,000 of them. Many of these licenses are for small areas, half an acre to two acres. Each can accommodate two to four traditional pits, with about 7 to 10 miners per pit; deeper pits may accommodate 10 to 15 miners. This system has maintained a fairly constant number of active mines over the years. Once a mining area is finished, the shaft or open pit must be filled in according to regulations enforced by the NGJA. These environmental measures pertain to loose gravel contaminating the surrounding water, damage to the landscape, and holes filled with stagnant water, a breeding ground for malaria-bearing mosquitos. Pit Mining. In Sri Lanka, pit mining is the traditional mining method and by far the most widespread. More than 6,000 of the current licenses are for pit mines, compared to approximately 100 licenses for river mining and 10 for mechanized mining (P.G.R. Dharma­ratne, pers. comm., 2014). We witnessed numerous pit mining operations, all excellent demonstrations of the processes described to us by industry leaders. Miners are actually shareholders in such operations, receiving a small stipend and a percentage of the rough stone sales. As shareholders, they need little or no supervision. Several other people are involved in such a venture, including the landowner, the holder of the mining rights, and the person who supplies the pump to dewater the pit; they typically receive 20%, 10%, and 10% of the sales, respectively. The rest of the revenue is split among the financial stakeholders and the miners (P.G.R. Dharmaratne, pers. comm., 2014). To give an idea of scale, a standard pit mine in Sri Lanka consists of a two by four meter opening at the surface (figure 12). If the pits are deep and located in harder ground, the miners may choose smaller dimensions. The vertical shafts generally range from 5 to 25 meters deep. The pits are created by first digging the opening to about a meter deep. The next step is making a wooden frame of timbers slightly taller than the depth of the pit. The miners place the first set of four timbers into the pit wall, which is grooved for a secure fit. Vertical struts of timber are wedged between the crossbeams. Branches and foliage help shore up the pit walls from water erosion, and timber braces are used in the center (figure 13). This process continues down the depth of the pit about every meter, until the miners reach the gem-bearing gravel. At this point they create horizontal crawl tunnels about 1.5 meters in height, called galleries, from the pit into the gem-bearing gravel. The length of these tunnels varies depending on the extent of the illam, but often reaches 5 to 10 meters. The galleries extending from the pit are interconnected with other tunnels. This leaves some areas of illam that cannot be mined because they are needed for structural support. Buckets of gravel are either passed to the surface or hauled up by rope on a manual winch. Some pits have a wood and branch rooftop to shield the miners from the intense sunlight. A pit with an opening wider than the traditional two by four meters is more like a very small open pit (also called an open cast), but it is still worked by manual labor. We witnessed some of these operations in Ratnapura and Elahera. Usually there were a half dozen people working in each pit. At least one miner at the bottom would shovel the illam into a woven bamboo basket held by another miner. That person would toss the basket to another miner, slightly higher up in the pit, who simultaneously tossed back an empty basket, like a perfectly harmonized juggling act. This process continued through several miners until the illam-filled basket reached the top, where it was dumped into a pile for washing. The accumulated mound of gem-bearing gravel could be covered with leafy branches, similar to those used to shore up the pit walls, to prevent rainwater from washing it away. Pit mines with a standard two by four meter shaft opening follow a similar process for removing the illam, but often using a manually operated winch for hauling buckets to the surface (figure 14). In both examples, the illam is either washed in a nearby reservoir by simple panning or removed to a more sophisticated washing facility featuring a sluice. The sluices are often modified from Australian designs, as they are in other parts of the world. The washed gem-bearing gravel is called dullam (Zwaan, 1982), which is also the term for the smaller, lower-quality gems picked from washing baskets and usually given to miners to sell

With around 6,500 mining licenses issued annually and around four or five pits in each mine, at any given time there could be 20,000–25,000 active pits in Sri Lanka. With extensive mining over the past 50 years, more than a million pits may have been dug altogether. Compared to many African mining countries, very few abandoned pits are left unfilled. This is because the NGJA collects a cash deposit upon issuing a mining license. If the mine owner fails to rehabilitate the land, the NGJA keeps the deposit for that purpose (P.G.R. Dharmaratne, pers. comm., 2014). Mechanized Mining. Only a limited number of mechanized mining licenses are issued in Sri Lanka each year. They may be granted if the concentration of gemstones is not high enough to make pit mining viable, or if there is a serious threat of illicit mining. To avoid large rushes of illicit miners to a rich discovery, the government may block access to the area or issue a mechanized mining license so the deposit can be mined quickly and legally (P.G.R. Dharma­ratne, pers. comm., 2014). Mechanized mining speeds the removal of overburden soil and the recovery of gem-bearing gravel for washing. Most mechanized mines in Sri Lanka are relatively small open-pit operations. Overburden soil sometimes contains dispersed gemstones, and it too may be washed. At mechanized operations, the illam is washed by sluices to keep up with the production (figure 15). Mechanized operations in Sri Lanka must also pay a deposit for the rehabilitation of the land