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large quartz stone crusher in sao paulo

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I spent three unforgettable weeks in beautiful Brazil, the land of contrasts! Every day was a journey full of brand new jewellery discoveries. This was not my first or last trip to this amazing country! In the past I enjoyed writing the Sao Paulo Jewellery Guide for the World Gold Council during my time in Brazil. More than ever, I feel that Rio deserves its own jewelry guide! So just what makes Brazilian jewelry style stand out on an international level? Why is it so unique?

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10 things to know about brazilian jewelry style

I spotted a ring on a family member who lives in Brazil. Having not heard about an engagement, I wondered if she was keeping something from me. I needn’t have worried, the stunning diamond ring was an ‘Anel de Compromisso’, otherwise known as a ‘girlfriend ring’. Before engagement, a man can gift an “anel de compromisso” to his special lady to show commitment, but they are not engaged. It’s normally worn on the right hand ring finger, a lovely tradition while being an extra diamond for the ladies! ‘I have enough jewelry’, said no one ever!

Day & Night Costume Jewelry “What is Brazilian style?” “There is none”, answered my Brazilian friends. Even though I’d already seen some amazing and very recognisable Brazilian style traits. They explained that costume jewelry is so widely available and affordable. “Us girls can pick and choose different set of styles”. The day and night jewelry style is different. Almost invisible during the day with bold statement pieces worn at night. The only difference is that costume jewellery is designed to complement an outfit and not to imitate fine jewelry. It’s unfortunate that the city streets are not safe enough to wear jewelry made of precious metals. Expensive diamonds are only worn at very special occasions like weddings or even when travelling abroad

What surprised me the most about my favourite Brazilian beach wear brands is that they sell costume jewelry to match your beach outfit: Lenny Niemeyer, Adriana Degreas, Salinas and Água de Coco will offer truly unique pieces! Shopping for fashion jewelry from fashion brands is not something that I am accustomed to; of course, there are exceptions like the luxurious Lanvin jewelry and Marni‘ collectable pieces. In Brazil, jewelry is accessible and absolutely gorgeous. I could not resist adding a few pieces to my personal collection. Even shoe brands offer something special when it comes to jewelry. Imagine visiting a shoe shop called Schutz in Rio for their one-of-a-kind costume jewellery- that’s exactly what I was advised to do! So I should not be surprised by the fact that my favourite fashion Brazilian brand Animale successfully launched fine jewellery collection. You should discover it for yourself:

10 things to know about brazilian jewelry style

The teenagers in Brazil prefer the Gothic style: it’s dark and playful. They love layering bracelets and necklaces together, mixing them with colourful strands of beads. A good look with wrist tattoos. The two fashion brands offering costume jewelry most loved by the Brazilian youth seemed to be Brazilian John&John, FYI and silver brand Guerreiro

The general feeling in Brazil is that if you are going to invest in a diamond, the jeweler should be from a well-known and prominent diamond family. Brazil diamonds mainly come from the states of Matto Grosso and Bahia. Due to the logistical nightmare of transportation, it is not easy to discover new sources of diamonds here. My favourite jewellery designer in Sao Paulo is Ara Vatanian, a brand known for their exceptional diamonds. Ara Vatanian knows how to have fun with carats of white and yellow diamonds: his diamond jewelry always has a twist and it is never boring. Read more about my visit to Ara Vartianian in Sao Paulo:

Brazil jewelry style is known for statement earrings: this is a local weakness and without a doubt adds elegance to the stunning Brazilian girls. It is a wonderfully multicultural society: here, I spoke to many people with German, Italian or Swedish roots. One thing that everyone had in common was a fabulous flair for style. When it comes to statement earrings, my Brazilian brand of choice would have to be Carla Amorim. Carla Amorim is influenced by Brazilian nature and her jewelry is as creative and diverse as nature itself. Personally, I consider Brazilian nature to be one of the most beautiful in the world. With some of the most sensational earring styles to be had, discover more with my visit to Carla Amorim here:

10 things to know about brazilian jewelry style

Another strong feature of Brazil I noted was the love for brushed gold. H.Stern includes more that ten different unpolished gold types in their collections. I spent an amazing day visiting the Gold Exhibiton hosted by H.Stern at the Centro Cultural Banco do Brazil. This multicultural venue of visual arts has been central to the culture of Brazil for 25 years:

Trends come and go, but quality jewelry can last for generations. Brazilian fine jewlery tends to have a classical look and settings come with a big central stone. l love jewels that are designed around a particular stone or gem. Truly special gems deserve to be set in a design that will show them at their most magnificent. The best modafinil examples can be seen at H Stern. I spent a memorable time with the H.Stern Brand Ambassador in Rio de Janeiro. Together we visited the H.Stern museum and discovered more about Brazilian stones. You can find out more about what we discovered here:

I found out that Aquamarine comes in more than 35 shades of blue, from a light shade to very intense. A huge 90% of this stone’s production comes from Brazil. The Imperial Topaz is one of the rarest stones in the world, found solely in one mine located in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Egyptians compared the Topaz to the passion of powerful Ra, the Sun God. As colorful as Brazil, Tourmalines join together all the shades of the spectrum. There’s a huge abundance of shades too, more than a thousand, which make this gem one of the richest in colour

10 things to know about brazilian jewelry style

For as long as we know, jewelry has been associated with the spiritual and the supernatural. Amulets and talismans appear in every culture, offering magical power and protection to the wearer. The same way in Brazil, the Catholics believe one can escape the devil if, by the time of his or her death, one is wearing an “escapulario”. Its a sign that the wearer is devoted to the services of the holy virgin Mary.  I found out about the importance of “escapulario” and why it works by Kelly Amorim, Laura Spiniella and Constance Zahn below

“Escapulario is an acessory that is a symbol of protection for the Christians. I wear escapulario to be protected, physically and spirituality. And it looks good and elegant! Jesus on one side and our lady of Mount Carmel on the other. A monk claims Virgin Mary appeared to him and gave him a escapulario so he was safe. Traditionally it is long and you wear it underneath your cloth, but priests and monks wear their escapulario made of fabric cloth over their clothes. You can mix it with whatever you want! Besides protecting you, it can look very good!” Kelly Amorim

“Originally “Escapulário” it is a garment suspended from the shoulders part of the monastic habiliment; after it developed to be worn by anyone; commom man and woman; as a devotional piece; consisted by two small rectangle images connected  by a fabric line or chain – normally with the imagine of Sacred Heart of Jesus in one end and Our Lady of Mount Carmel in the other. For me it is a symbol of protection and devotion; specially if it is made/prepared with the religious symbols, saints and stones that have a strong meaning in your life. I wear it most of the time my personalized escapulário, even with other necklace. I decided to develop custom escapulários because I wanted to have the image of the Holy Spirit with me and also the image of the Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus which i am devoted; and also stones such as amethyst and quartz that make it look like a very delicate necklace; besides its energetic power. As a bespoke escapulários, the most different one we made by now was to attend a Catholic and also a Yogi client that wanted both the Holy Spirit in one end and Shiva in the other.” Laura Spiniella

10 things to know about brazilian jewelry style

“As far as I know, the traditional scapular is made of two rectangular pieces of cloth (with images or verses from the Bible on them) connected by a band. It is a devotional item worn by catholics – one rectangular on the chest, the other on the back. I think in Brazil we’re very fond of “religious charms”. For me, the scapular is a sign of protection. We usually use it with a short chain, so it’s visible to other people. Especially when it’s a beautiful piece of jewelry. It can be worn with other religious medals (such as the Holy Virgin medal) or simply with other jewel pendants.” Constance Zahn

Due to safety and the richness of Amazonia in Brazil, bio jewelry has an important place in Brazil. I feel there are many “me too” brands in the marketplace; personally, I value originality and difference. Bio jewelry (eco jewelry) is made with material made of nature, various seeds are used. The Amazonian rainforest is the largest forest in the world. I discovered bio jewelry by Maria Oiticica at the Shopping Leblon mall in Rio. Maria Oiticica collaborates with various indigenous tribes—mainly the Waimiri-Atroari, the Apurinãs and Tarianos. The tribespeople serve as gatherers and suppliers of materials and as artisans handcrafting Maria Oiticica pieces; their lifestyles, tools and crafts provide direct inspiration for her designs:

Then there are the unique and truly unforgettable discoveries I made at the Silvia Furmanovich boutique. A piece from this designer may not be your first purchase, but it would definitely be unique. I consider jewelry to be an art form, along with being pleasing to the eye; it is sensual to the touch, and takes on different lives with each wearer. Silvia Furmanovich has mastered the art of jewellery and her boutiques are a must visit for me every time I am in Brazil. Discover the world of Silvia Furmanovich together with the GEMOLOGUE and Silvia interview here:

10 things to know about brazilian jewelry style

I am extremely happy to announce that my new jewelry book – GEMOLOGUE: Street Jewellery Styles & Styling Tips – is now on Amazon. I’m so excited. It’s the first book of its kind solely dedicated to jewellery. 

GEMOLOGUE jewelry blog by Liza Urla is a celebration of fine, fashion and vintage jewellery featuring talented jewellery designers, trendy urban street style, exclusive interviews and rare jewellery reviews. This jewellery blog’s goal is to encourage and educate about jewellery online in a fresh and original fashion to inspire women and men across the globe in a fashion and travelling context

Jewellery blogger, writer Liza Urla, the founder of GEMOLOGUE, is a London-based and NYC-educated gemologist, who has travelled to and lived in many countries. She is now one of the most influential digital jewellery tastemakers. Her jewellery influence has been acknowledged by Financial Times, The New York Times, Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar

10 things to know about brazilian jewelry style

Liza Urla, the founder of GEMOLOGUE, is a London-based and NYC-educated gemologist, who has travelled to and lived in many countries. She is now one of the most influential digital jewellery tastemakers. Her jewellery influence has been acknowledged by Financial Times, Vogue and Harper’s Bazaar

GEMOLOGUE by Liza Urla is featuring talented jewellery designers, trendy urban street style, exclusive interviews and rare jewellery reviews – a celebration of fine jewellery, fashion jewellery and vintage jewellery

genomic surveillance of yellow fever virus epizootic in

Roles Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Project administration, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

Affiliations Spatial Epidemiology Lab (SpELL), Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP160/12 50, Bruxelles, Belgium, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Roles Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Resources, Supervision, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing

São Paulo, a densely inhabited state in southeast Brazil that contains the fourth most populated city in the world, recently experienced its largest yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak in decades. YFV does not normally circulate extensively in São Paulo, so most people were unvaccinated when the outbreak began. Surveillance in non-human primates (NHPs) is important for determining the magnitude and geographic extent of an epizootic, thereby helping to evaluate the risk of YFV spillover to humans. Data from infected NHPs can give more accurate insights into YFV spread than when using data from human cases alone. To contextualise human cases, identify epizootic foci and uncover the rate and direction of YFV spread in São Paulo, we generated and analysed virus genomic data and epizootic case data from NHPs in São Paulo. We report the occurrence of three spatiotemporally distinct phases of the outbreak in São Paulo prior to February 2018. We generated 51 new virus genomes from YFV positive cases identified in 23 different municipalities in São Paulo, mostly sampled from NHPs between October 2016 and January 2018. Although we observe substantial heterogeneity in lineage dispersal velocities between phylogenetic branches, continuous phylogeographic analyses of generated YFV genomes suggest that YFV lineages spread in São Paulo at a mean rate of approximately 1km per day during all phases of the outbreak. Viral lineages from the first epizootic phase in northern São Paulo subsequently dispersed towards the south of the state to cause the second and third epizootic phases there. This alters our understanding of how YFV was introduced into the densely populated south of São Paulo state. Our results shed light on the sylvatic transmission of YFV in highly fragmented forested regions in São Paulo state and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in sentinel species

genomic surveillance of yellow fever virus epizootic in

Since July 2016, the southeast region of Brazil has experienced the largest yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak in decades. São Paulo is the most densely populated state in southeast Brazil. The outbreak has caused serious public health concern in the state, as YFV does not normally circulate widely there and most of the 21 million inhabitants were correspondingly unvaccinated against YFV when the outbreak began. In Brazil, YFV typically circulates among non-human primates (NHPs), and human cases represent isolated spill over events from this predominantly sylvatic cycle. Understanding the epidemiological dynamics and spread of YFV in NHPs is therefore critical for contextualising human cases, and guiding vaccination strategies that can better protect local human populations. Here, we aim to contextualise human cases, identify epizootic foci and uncover the rate and direction of YFV spread in São Paulo. We analyse the geographic and temporal distribution of observed cases of YFV in NHPs in São Paulo state, and identify three distinct phases of the epizootic. We generate virus genome sequences from 51 YFV-positive cases and perform phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses aimed at understanding the spatial spread of YFV in São Paulo state. Analyses of these data indicate that YFV spread from the north of São Paulo state into more densely populated southern regions. Although we observe substantial heterogeneity in the rate at which different sampled YFV lineages spread, the typical rate of spread was low with a mean rate of ~1 km per day. This is consistent with a scenario in which the majority of transmission events occurred between NHPs primates and sylvatic vectors across forested patches

Citation: Hill SC, de Souza R, Thézé J, Claro I, Aguiar RS, Abade L, et al. (2020) Genomic Surveillance of Yellow Fever Virus Epizootic in São Paulo, Brazil, 2016 – 2018. PLoS Pathog 16(8): e1008699. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008699

Copyright: © 2020 Hill et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited

genomic surveillance of yellow fever virus epizootic in

Funding: NRF, ECS, OGP, SCH, NL and RdS were supported through a São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) and Medical Research Council CADDE partnership award (MR/S0195/1 and FAPESP 18/14389-0) (http://caddecentre.org/). NRF and SCH were supported by a Wellcome Trust and Royal Society Sir Henry Dale Fellowship awarded to NRF (grant 204311/Z/16/Z). The research was supported by an internal HEFCE GCRF grant 005073 and John Fell Research Fund Grant 005166, awarded to NRF. ECS was supported by grants CNPq #400354/2016-0 and FAPESP# 2016/01735-2. OGP, NRF and LdP were supported by the Oxford Martin School. SD is supported by the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS, Belgium) and was previously funded by the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO, Belgium). LCJA was supported by CNPq/MCTI Decit/SCTIE/MoH (440685/2016-8) and CAPES (88887.130716/2016-00). MG was supported by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – FAPERJ. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute haemorrhagic disease caused by yellow fever virus (YFV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus from the Flavivirus genus. Yellow fever is endemic to the American and African tropics, where nearly 400 million people are estimated to be at risk of infection [1]. Clinical manifestations of YF in humans range from inapparent or mild disease in up to 80% of infected cases, to severe hepatitis and haemorrhagic disease. The fatality rate among patients who develop visceral disease can range from 20% to 60% [2]. YF is preventable in humans by administration of a single dose of an extremely effective vaccine that provides life-long protection against the disease

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