The Los Angeles (LA) abrasion method is commonly used for determining the abrasion characteristics and classification of the granular materials used in road and pavement construction. The abrasion resistance of materials can significantly affect the service life of road pavements when exposed to long-term dynamic traffic loads. The LA abrasion method suffers from several drawbacks including the time needed to perform the test, the operational noise and dust and the space required by the machine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the modified compaction method can be a suitable alternative for determining the LA abrasion value. This study was proposed in consideration of the similarities in the treatment of materials by the LA abrasion method and the modified compaction method. It was considered that the laboratory-modified compaction method closely simulates the abrasion resistance of the unbound granular materials in the base course and sub-base layers of road pavements that experience repetitive dynamic loads. As indicated by the results of tests on nineteen different aggregate samples, a strong correlation exists between the Los Angeles Abrasion Values (LAVs) and the values obtained when implementing the modified compaction method, namely, the Compaction Abrasion Values (CAVs)[email protected]
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Concrete stamps are tools for imprinting texture and pattern into freshly poured concrete. Stamps can be used to make concrete look like stone, brick, wood and other materials. They are most often used to create decorative driveways, patio, pool decks and more
Specialty stamps are also available and include borders, radial or sun-burst designs, compass roses, medallions and more. Many manufacturers will also create custom stamps based on your specifications.
Concrete stamping originated on the West Coast way back in the 1950s. If you were to flip through the pages of a decorative concrete history book, you'd probably come across old photos of the first concrete stamps. These stamps were made from cast aluminum and resembled giant cookie cutters with handles attached.
Although these early tools were great for imprinting basic brick or stone patterns in fresh concrete, they didn't impart any texture so the results looked unrealistic in comparison with what you can achieve today. Now, most concrete stamps, or stamp mats, are molded from the real materials they mimic, resulting in stunningly authentic textural effects
A single concrete stamp will cost between $50 and $350, while a set of stamps will range between $500 and $3,500. Custom stamps will cost considerably more. Some contractors budget up to $15,000 a year for new stamps, which includes replacing damaged stamps and adding new patterns to their lineup. Learn more about the cost of concrete stamps.
Because investing in a full set can be a large expense, you may want to consider renting stamps, especially if the pattern is one you don’t predict reusing for future work. Stamps can be rented for a daily fee from your local concrete supply store. Rental rates can range from $150 to $350 per day depending on the stamp pattern.
If you’d rather own your stamps, but still don’t want to pay full price, used stamps are an option. Of course, remember that just like buying a used car without a warranty, you are assuming some risk. Used stamps can be found for sale on sites like Craigslist or Ebay. You can also ask your local concrete supply store if they have any used sets you can buy.
Rigid mats are used for stamping a majority of the concrete. Each rigid mat is color coded so you can tell them apart and make sure you aren’t creating unwanted repetition. Having lots of rigid mats allows for greater pattern variation and a quicker install.
Touch-up skins are used to pre-texture the edges of a slab and to help with very tight spots. Sometimes you’ll run into a situation where even a flex mat isn’t sufficient. In these cases use a touch up skin and a chisel to do detail work like grout lines.
Seamless skins are a great option if you are just getting into stamping. These stamps impart realistic natural stone texture, but do not have a pattern, making them the easiest way to add elegant texture to concrete.
Since texture mats don’t have a joint pattern you won’t have to worry about precise alignment. Simply overlap the feathered edges by 6-8 inches as you go. You can texture concrete very quickly and comeback later with a saw to cut in a pattern if you’d like
Experienced contractors report that high-quality stamps will last for 10 to 15 years when cleaned and stored properly. Proline Concrete Tools, a leading stamp manufacturer, recommends washing your stamps with liquid dish washing soap and a soft brush after every use. They can also be sprayed with silicone to keep them well conditioned. Always store your stamps flat, do not bend or roll them to save space.
Stamping old concrete is possible with the use of an overlay. The overlay is poured over the existing concrete and then stamped with the desired pattern. When stamping an overlay, ensure the pattern’s joints are 3/8” or shallower. Learn more about stampable overlays
Stamping concrete is harder than most people realize. Learning how to stamp concrete yourself is not something you can do without hands-on experience. The stamping process is labor intensive, requires expensive tools, has to be done in a short window of time and has many variables that will affect the outcome of the final product.
Professional stamping contractors usually bring a crew of at least three workers to complete a stamping project. These workers have learned how to stamp concrete by following the instructions provided with their stamp mats and attending trainings hosted by stamp manufacturers or concrete supply stores. Before using a new set of stamps many of them will practice in a bed of sand so they know what to expect from the pattern.
There is a very short window of time in which concrete can be stamped. The concrete needs to be firm enough to support the weight of the workers doing the stamping, but soft enough to allow the stamp mats to leave a detailed impression.
Weather also has an impact on the working time for a stamped concrete project. Heat and wind seem to be two of the hardest things to deal with since they speed up the setting time of the concrete. Check the weather and delay the project if it means you will struggle to produce the quality of stamped concrete desired.
The consistency and makeup of your concrete mix can make or break your stamping work. Many decorative concrete contractors prefer pouring concrete that will be stamped at a lower slump (between 4 and 5 inches). A lower slump can be stamped sooner and prevents oozing between stamps. Veteran stampers also prefer a mix that has more cream at the surface because it results in crisp impression. Furthermore, aggregate of ¾” is ideal because it is large enough to prevent shrinkage problems, but not so large that it interferes with stamping.
Using a release agent will prevent your stamps from sticking to the concrete. Powdered release agents are broadcast onto the slab prior to stamping and impart color to the surface. Be careful not to use too much powdered release, as it can interfere with the pattern. Liquid release agents are sprayed either onto the slab or onto the stamps and can be tinted for added color. Some contractors use two colors of powdered release or a powder and a liquid to create accents.
Avoid repeating patterns by carefully placing the mats at random—do not repeat the same sequence (i.e. red, yellow, blue, red, yellow blue). Additionally, some stamps can be rotated 45 degrees each time you move them to a new spot on the slab, but this does not work for certain patterns. Some stamp manufacturers offer placement guides to ensure that you end up with plenty of variation.
Control joints should be cut the day after stamping. When working with seamless stamps it is easy to work control joints into your pattern of saw cuts, but when working with patterned stamps, this isn’t easy. If your pattern has some straight edges (brick, ashlar, wood, etc.), do your best to follow the pattern as much as possible. Another option is to incorporate bands or borders into your design to hide the joints. Some contractors have had success reducing or eliminating joints by using steel fibers in their concrete mix
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Los Angeles abrasion test on aggregates is the measure of aggregate toughness and abrasion resistance such as crushing, degradation and disintegration. This test is carried out by AASHTO T 96 or ASTM C 131: Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine
When vehicles move on the road, the soil particles present between the pneumatic tyres and road surface cause abrasion of road aggregates. The steel rimmed wheels of animal driven vehicles also cause considerable abrasion of the road surface
The principle of Los Angeles abrasion test is to produce abrasive action by use of standard steel balls which when mixed with aggregates and rotated in a drum for specific number of revolutions also causes impact on aggregates