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makka economic environmental copper mine high efficiency concentrator for sale

makka economic environmental copper mine high efficiency concentrator for sale

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Hot Cone Crusher Brief Introduction

We are a professional mining machinery manufacturer, the main equipment including: jaw crusher, cone crusher and other sandstone equipment;Ball mill, flotation machine, concentrator and other beneficiation equipment; Powder Grinding Plant, rotary dryer, briquette machine, mining, metallurgy and other related equipment.If you are interested in our products or want to visit the nearby production site, you can click the button to consult us.

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the global rise of zero liquid discharge for wastewater

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Zero liquid discharge (ZLD)—a wastewater management strategy that eliminates liquid waste and maximizes water usage efficiency — has attracted renewed interest worldwide in recent years. Although implementation of ZLD reduces water pollution and augments water supply, the technology is constrained by high cost and intensive energy consumption. In this critical review, we discuss the drivers, incentives, technologies, and environmental impacts of ZLD. Within this framework, the global applications of ZLD in the United States and emerging economies such as China and India are examined. We highlight the evolution of ZLD from thermal- to membrane-based processes, and analyze the advantages and limitations of existing and emerging ZLD technologies. The potential environmental impacts of ZLD, notably greenhouse gas emission and generation of solid waste, are discussed and the prospects of ZLD technologies and research needs are highlighted

Figure 2. Schematic illustration of (A) thermal and (B) RO-incorporated ZLD systems. Incorporation of RO, an energy-efficient technology, into ZLD reduces the volume of wastewater entering the brine concentrator, which consumes much higher energy per volume of treated water than RO

the global rise of zero liquid discharge for wastewater

Figure 3. Specific energy consumption by RO, brine concentrator, and brine crystallizer. Although RO is energy efficient, its limited salinity range (typically with an upper concentration of ∼70 000 mg/L) provides opportunities for other technologies to be applied in ZLD systems. The specific energies shown in the figure are in kWhe per cubic meter of feedwater

Figure 4. Schematic illustration of emerging membrane-based ZLD technologies in which (A) ED/EDR, (B) FO, or (C) MD is incorporated. ED/EDR uses an array of cation-exchange (green) and anion-exchange (orange) membranes that selectively reject anions and cations, respectively; FO employs a semipermeable membrane that allows water to pass through but ideally rejects all salts; MD employs a porous hydrophobic membrane that allows passage of water vapor through the membrane (as indicated by the blue curved arrows) but not liquid or salt. The produced brine is further concentrated by brine crystallizers or evaporation ponds to achieve ZLD

Figure 2. Schematic illustration of (A) thermal and (B) RO-incorporated ZLD systems. Incorporation of RO, an energy-efficient technology, into ZLD reduces the volume of wastewater entering the brine concentrator, which consumes much higher energy per volume of treated water than RO

the global rise of zero liquid discharge for wastewater

Figure 3. Specific energy consumption by RO, brine concentrator, and brine crystallizer. Although RO is energy efficient, its limited salinity range (typically with an upper concentration of ∼70 000 mg/L) provides opportunities for other technologies to be applied in ZLD systems. The specific energies shown in the figure are in kWhe per cubic meter of feedwater

Figure 4. Schematic illustration of emerging membrane-based ZLD technologies in which (A) ED/EDR, (B) FO, or (C) MD is incorporated. ED/EDR uses an array of cation-exchange (green) and anion-exchange (orange) membranes that selectively reject anions and cations, respectively; FO employs a semipermeable membrane that allows water to pass through but ideally rejects all salts; MD employs a porous hydrophobic membrane that allows passage of water vapor through the membrane (as indicated by the blue curved arrows) but not liquid or salt. The produced brine is further concentrated by brine crystallizers or evaporation ponds to achieve ZLD

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