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high quality quartz mineral processing production line sell at a loss in rio de janeiro

high quality quartz mineral processing production line sell at a loss in rio de janeiro

Of the salts present in crude oil, sodium, calcium, magnesium, strontium and iron chlorides are the most abundant and are considered the main cause of corrosion in crude oil refineries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify the main chloride counterions (Na, Ca, Mg, Sr and Fe) using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after hot solvent extraction (modified ASTM D 6470-99). The procedure developed in this work allowed samples with different °API values (17.4–30.2) originating from the post-salt to be studied. Under the operational conditions of ICP-OES, robust plasma (Mg II/Mg I > 10 for the axial and radial configurations) was obtained based on evaluation of the ratio of the Mg II/Mg I intensities. Furthermore, yttrium was used as an internal standard, resulting in as little interference with the analytical signal as possible. This procedure achieved detection limits on the order of 0.99 mg L−1, 0.025 mg L−1, 0.33 μg L−1, 0.06 ng L−1 and 0.26 μg L−1 for Na, Ca, Mg, Sr and Fe, respectively. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed through addition/recovery tests (91–120%) and through comparison with the results obtained with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The modified standard test method of ASTM D 6470-99 extraction was compared with microwave-assisted acid digestion and was found to achieve extractions higher than 92.44% for Na and 81.06% for Sr from two of the analysed extracts. Finally, the chloride concentrations obtained via potentiometric titration and ICP-OES (through the analysis of chloride with its counterions) in the aqueous extract indicated a high correlation between Na, Ca, Mg, Sr and Fe and chloride (105.10%, 99.33% and 102.12% for the evaluated samples)

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assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

X-ray diffraction, also known as XRD, is a technique used for establishing ore mineralogy. TOPAS quantitative phase analysis (QPA) combined with fast detectors integrated in the XRD systems enables rapid standard-less analysis. The characteristic precision of QPA for samples with a crystalline structure can be better at 1 wt-%

This is confirmed by contrasting the vast chemical composition measured from the minerals’ concentration and stoichiometry to chemical analysis. This article demonstrates how variable stoichiometry of aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) can be controlled in TOPAS. This would allow the minerals industry to detect adverse recovery losses during the processing of iron ore and bauxite

Often, quantitative phase analysis is applied in quality control of mining operations and also for studying geologic materials in service and research laboratories. A better understanding of the properties of gangue and ore is of economic importance for the process mineralogy

assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

Gangue is a deleterious mineral that needs to be separated from the ore, while ores are minerals from which metals are obtained. A proper understanding is vital because physical characteristics that establish the material’s processability such as density, hardness, magnetism, or solubility are correlated to the minerals’ crystal structure and not to their chemical composition. Hence, such properties directly affect beneficiation conditions such as the separation method (dissolution, magnetic washing or gravity)

In mining operations, recovery estimates are often based on chemical grade-estimates. There would be huge recovery losses if the desired element is detected in one of the gangue minerals that are removed or if it could not be accessed during ore processing

For instance, in Brazil a few bauxite deposits include goethite, an iron mineral, which may have up to 30% of Al instead of Fe. This part of Al could not be accessed during the production of alumina. In order to provide an estimation on the economic order of those recovery losses, let us consider a yearly production of 5 Mio tons for the Miraí and Itamaratí mines in 2010. The equivalent to 1% enhancement in recovery would come to 35 Mio US-$ annually

assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

QPA that uses X-ray diffraction data and the Rietveld method is a direct technique that can be used for acquiring the absolute or relative phase abundances of crystalline as well as non-crystalline (nano-crystalline or amorphous) components in a mixture. However, despite this, the accuracy of this method has been one of the most frequently asked questions

The precision of the QPA result could be assessed by contrasting with conventional chemical analysis. If a multi-phase mixture is subjected to XRD-based chemical analysis, such analysis follows from the phase abundances and the known stoichiometry of the crystalline phases. For this technique, the composition of the crystalline phases must be defined well

Site multiplicities and site occupancies of the crystal structure establish the mass of the mineral’s unit cell. The volume and the mass of the unit cell are equal to a calibration coefficient in quantitative analysis, and the structure of crystal signifies a hard constraint. Hence, an accurate knowledge of all crystal structures is important for highly precise quantification

assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

This represents a major challenge in QPA because in process control only limited measurement time would be available, thus restricting the scan range. While such short ranges may allow TOPAS QPA, they may not allow independent site occupancy refinement

Applying chemical or geometric constraints could steady the refinement and would help obtain high precision QPA of combined crystals. This article demonstrates how to apply restraints in the TOPAS software. Both approaches are applied to Brazilian bauxite, which could exhibit high levels of Al to Fe substitution in certain minerals, for instance goethite (Gt, FeOOH)

In order to reduce micro-absorption, a D4 ENDEAVOR diffractometer using Cobalt radiation was used to collect the diffraction data of reference bauxite BXMG 3. CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil provided both the chemical analysis and the diffraction data. It also defined an entire range of Brazilian bauxites within a round robin analysis. Figure 1 shows the typical TOPAS QPA

assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

Figure 1. TOPAS QPA of bauxite certified reference material BXMG-3. The goethite contribution to the diffraction pattern is highlighted. Mineral names are abbreviated according to the IMA code of rock forming minerals

The major phases are hematite (Hem, Fe2 O3), goethite (Gt, FeOOH), and gibbsite (Gb, Al(OH)3). The latter displays a bimodal size distribution, which was taken into account by refining two phases exhibiting varied crystallite size parameters. In addition, minute amounts of kaolinite (Kln, Al2 Si2 O5(OH)4), quartz (Qtz, SiO2), and rutile and anatase (Rt, Ana: TiO2) were also identified and refined

In Table 1, the phase abundances for the minerals with chemical formula as specified in the paragraph above are summarized in column “nominal”. The massive elemental composition, as shown in Table 2, was obtained from the separate phase compositions as per the minerals’ stoichiometry. It is evaluated against the respective reference values from the CETEM certificate. Results should typically agree within 1% or better

assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

Table 2. shows an underestimation of Al and about 3% overestimation of Fe for the XRD data. This may indicate the presence of certain systematic error in the model, and this is additionally backed by goethite’s small unit cell parameters. Goethite’s refined lattice parameter c is 2.9750(7) Å, thus denoting a highly repealed Al-goethite with the occupancy of Al at the iron site of 0.28 (Figure 2)

Table 2. Element concentrations calculated from the phase concentrations obtained for the different models of Fe/Al site occupancy in goethite (see Tab 1). The lower part of the table shows the bias in the bulk elemental concentrations between the nominal mineral formulae and the different models of substitution

The independent refinement of the iron site-occupancy in goethite (column “free” of Table 1) further supports this finding, giving 0.21. The underestimation of Fe is decreased from nearly 3% to 1.5%, as shown in Table 2

assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

Lattice parameters are characterized by the peak positions. Such positions are resolved much better in the diffraction pattern than the slight intensity variations owing to changes in site occupancies and concentration (scale factor). This allows one to anticipate enhanced precision in QPA. Figure 2 shows the change of the lattice parameter c with the concentration of Al in goethite, FeOOH

For the lattice parameter, the regression equation is utilized to define the occupancy of Fe and Al (Figure 3). The ensuing chemical compositions and phase are illustrated in column “latt_constr c” of Tables 1 and 2. The Al fraction goes towards 0.27 with a total enhancement of the bias for element concentrations better at 1%

Chemical restraints are a novel TOPAS 5 feature. They correspond to the occupancy parameters of the crystal structures to the sample’s known bulk chemistry. An example of the implementation for aluminium and iron in goethite is shown in Figure 4

assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

Figure 4. Examples of TOPAS code for chemical restraints. They force the Fe/Al site occupancy parameter xal towards minimal difference between Fe and Al refined for the crystal structure and the bulk chemical analysis for Fe2 O3 and Al2 O3. The factors 0.6994 for Fe and 0.5293 for Al account for the transformation from oxide concentrations (reported in the certificate) to elemental concentrations used in TOPAS

The QPA results for BXMG-3 bauxite are given in Tables 1 and 2 under columns “chem_constr”. Two cases are demonstrated for restrained elements Al, Fe, Ti, and Si and Al, Fe. The chemical restraints lead to a slightly higher Al occupancy of 0.29/0.30. This agreement with chemical analysis is 0.5%

Using TOPAS refinement of XRD data, the quantitative mineralogy of CETEM certified reference bauxite BXMG-3 was established. This technique is believed to be precise because the major chemistry figures obtained from the XRD results correlate well with bulk chemical analysis from the certificates

assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

Also, a better understanding of element partitioning into a range of minerals is acquired, thereby supporting the process mineralogy. Gibbsite was detected as the major source of recoverable alumina in the reference bauxite from Brazil, and goethite as well as kaolinite account for the alumina that was unavailable

Site and lattice occupancy parameters are correlated in replaceable mixed crystals. The contemplation of their ratio in TOPAS Rietveld quantification was made possible through the integrated macro language, significantly enhancing the precision of the quantitative X-ray mineralogy results

Similar precision is acquired through chemical restrains. The specific example of goethite that contains Al is of major significance for the beneficiation of bauxite during the production of alumina or refractories. Goethite-rich iron ore is yet another key application to be targeted with the restraints technique, as this ore could include large amounts of Al

assessing the accuracy of quantitative xrd with aluminous

Bruker AXS Inc.. (2021, February 26). Assessing the Accuracy of Quantitative XRD with Aluminous Goethite Mixed-Crystal in Bauxite and Iron Ore. AZoMining. Retrieved on February 27, 2021 from

Bruker AXS Inc.. "Assessing the Accuracy of Quantitative XRD with Aluminous Goethite Mixed-Crystal in Bauxite and Iron Ore". AZoMining. 27 February 2021.